As you read this, your nervous system is performing several functions simultaneously. The visual system is processing what is seen on the page; the motor system controls your eye movements and the turn of the pages (or click of the mouse); the prefrontal cortex maintains attention. Even fundamental functions, like breathing and regulation of body temperature, are controlled by the nervous system. The nervous system is one of two systems that exert control over all the organ systems of the body; the other is the endocrine system.
The nervous system is made up of neurons, specialized cells that can receive and transmit chemical or electrical signals, and glia, cells that provide support functions for the neurons.
PARTS OF NEURON
Each neuron has;
- a cell body (or soma)
- the cell body contains a nucleus,
- the cell body also contains smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum,
- Golgi apparatus,
- mitochondria, and other cellular components.
- Dendrite which are tree-like receive information from other neuron or other cells and carry information toward the cell body
THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
is made up of the brain and spinal cord, the brain is the control center of the nervous system and spinal carries nerve signal between the body and the brain. The brain interprets nerve signals from the body and sends response signal that pass through the spinal cord to the body.
THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is the connection between the central nervous system and the rest of the body. The PNS can be broken down into the autonomic nervous system, which controls bodily functions without conscious control, and the sensory-somatic nervous system, which transmits sensory information from the skin, muscles, and sensory organs to the CNS and sends motor commands from the CNS to the muscles.